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Person qualified to design buildings and to supervise their erection.
The design of the visual appearance of structures; their internal arrangements of space; selection of external and internal building materials; design or selection of natural and artificial lighting systems, as well as mechanical, electrical, and plumbing systems; and design or selection of decorations and furnishings.
Ceramic structural material that, in modern times, is made by pressing clay into blocks and firing them to the requisite hardness in a kiln.
Binding material used in construction and engineering, often called hydraulic cement, typically made by heating a mixture of limestone and clay until it almost fuses and then grinding it to a fine powder.
Structural masonry material made by mixing broken stone or gravel with sand, cement, and water and allowing the mixture to harden into a solid mass.
Use of materials or devices to inhibit or prevent the conduction of heat or of electricity.
Iron is a lustrous, ductile, malleable, silver-gray metal found in Group 8 of the periodic table.
Alloy of iron, carbon, and small proportions of other elements. Iron contains impurities in the form of silicon, phosphorus, sulfur, and manganese; steelmaking involves the removal of these impurities, known as slag, and the addition of desirable alloying elements.
Botanically, the xylem tissue that forms the bulk of the stem of a woody plant. Xylem conducts sap upward from the roots to the leaves, stores food in the form of complex carbohydrates, and provides support; it is made up of various types of cells specialized for each of these purposes.
Movable functional items such as tables, chairs, and beds needed to make a room or a home more comfortable and easier to live and work in.
Interior Decoration: Topic
Adornment of the interior of a building, public or domestic, comprising interior architecture, finishing, and furnishings.
Light produced by artificial means to allow visibility in enclosures and at night.
Stained Glass: Topic
In general, windows made of colored glass. With the development of medieval architecture, stained glass assumed a unique structural and symbolic importance.
Was used in Europe in the 16th and 17th cent. as an inexpensive substitute for costly hangings.
Any artificial channel or conduit for water, originally applied to water supply tunnels, but later used to refer to elevated structures of stone, wood, or iron carrying navigable canals across valleys.
Structure that provides a continuous path or road over water, valleys, ravines, or above other roads.
Artificial waterway constructed for drainage, irrigation, or navigation.
City Planning: Topic
Process of planning for the improvement of urban centers in order to provide healthy and safe living conditions, efficient transport and communication, adequate public facilities, and aesthetic surroundings.
Structure built across a river to hold back a body of water (called a reservoir) in order to prevent flooding, provide water for irrigation and storage, and provide hydroelectric power.
System of defense structures for protection from enemy attacks. Fortification developed along two general lines: permanent sites built in peacetime, and emplacements and obstacles hastily constructed in the field in time of war.
Natural or artificially conveyed flow of water. In ancient Greece columnar shrines were built over springs and dedicated to deities or nymphs.
Land set aside for the cultivation of flowers, herbs, vegetables, or small fruits, for either utility or ornament.
In general, living accommodations available for the inhabitants of a community.
In agriculture, artificial watering of the land. Although used chiefly in regions with annual rainfall of less than 20 in. (51 cm), it is also used in wetter areas to grow certain crops, e.g., rice.
Town Planning: Topic
The design of buildings or groups of buildings in a physical and social context, concentrating on the relationship between various buildings and their environment, as well as on their uses.
Passageway through a mountain, under a body of water, or underground.
Legislative regulations by which a municipal government seeks to control the use of buildings and land within the municipality.